# Appendix

## 1. How do you calculate the typing speed?

The typing speed can be measured with different accuracies:

• how many words are typed for a certain time period (the least accurate),
• how many characters are typed for a certain time period,
• how many keystrokes are made for a certain time period (the most accurate).

Also there are:

• Simple speed (Gross speed),
• Net speed (takes into account the errors).

The following table lists the detailed descriptions of all typing speed types:

Description Designation Formula
the number of words typed in a one minute period of time WPM WPM = ( Words without errors + Words with errors ) / Time spent in minutes
the WPM without words with errors Net WPM Net WPM = WPM - ( Words with errors / Time spent in minutes )
the number of characters typed in a one minute period of time CPM CPM = ( Characters without errors + Characters with errors ) / Time spent in minutes
the CPM without characters with errors Net CPM Net CPM = CPM - ( Characters with errors / Time spent in minutes )
the number of keystrokes in a one minute period of time KPM KPM = ( Keystrokes without errors + Keystrokes with errors ) / Time spent in minutes
the KPM without keystrokes with errors Net KPM Net KPM = KPM - ( Keystrokes with errors / Time spent in minutes )
Example

A student typed 90 words per 2 min with errors in 10 words.

Simple speed = 90 words / 2 min = 45 wpm

Net speed = 45 wpm - ( 10 errors / 2 min ) = 40 net wpm

Example 2

A student typed 240 characters per 2 min with errors in 20 characters.

Simple speed = 240 characters / 2 min = 120 cpm

Net speed = 120 cpm - ( 20 errors / 2 min ) = 100 net cpm

## 2. How do you calculate the typing accuracy?

Typing accuracy is defined as the percentage of correct entries out of the total entries typed.

The following table lists the different formulas for the typing accuracy calculation:

Description Formula
Accuracy in the words, percent Accuracy = ( 100% - Words with errors * 100%) / Total number of words
Accuracy in the characters, percent Accuracy = ( 100% - Characters with errors * 100%) / Total number of characters
Accuracy in the keystrokes, percent Accuracy = ( 100% - Incorrect keystrokes * 100%) / Total number of words

Sometimes it's convenient to evaluate the typing accuracy in the Errors ( percentage errors ). See table below:

Description Formula
Errors in the words, percent Errors % = Words with errors * 100% / Total number of words
Errors in the characters, percent Errors % = Errors = Characters with errors * 100% / Total number of characters
Errors in the keystrokes, percent Errors % = Incorrect keystrokes * 100% / Total number of keystrokes

## 3. Typing rhythm

In the touch typing techniques the typing rhythm is a very important part. This means that keystrokes should come at equal intervals. To control the constant typing speed, the Slowdown indicator is used.

In the following table are different formulas for the Slowdown( percentage slowdowns ) calculation:

Description Formula
Slowdown in the words, percent Slowdown % = Words with delay * 100% / Total number of words
Slowdown in the characters, percent Slowdown % = Characters with delay * 100% / Total number of characters
Slowdown % in the keystrokes, percent Slowdown % = Keystroke delay * 100% / Total number of keystrokes

## 4. Overall rating calculation

Formula

Overall rating (%) = ( Net speed / Course goal: Speed ) * 100%

where:

Example

A student typed 90 words per 2 min with errors in 10 words. The course goal is 50 net wpm.

Simple speed = 90 words / 2 min = 45 wpm

Net speed = 45 wpm - ( 10 errors / 2 min ) = 40 net wpm

Overall rating = ( 40 net wpm / 50 net wpm ) * 100% = 80%

Example 2

A student typed 240 characters per 2 min with errors in 20 characters. The course goal is 140 net cpm.

Simple speed = 240 characters / 2 min = 120 cpm

Net speed = 120 cpm - ( 20 errors / 2 min ) = 100 net cpm

Overall rating = ( 100 net cpm / 140 net cpm ) * 100% = 71%

## 5. What is a good typing speed?

In one study of average computer users in 1998, the average rate for transcription was 33 words per minute.

In the same study, when the group was divided into "fast", "moderate", and "slow" groups, the average speeds were 40 wpm, 35 wpm, and 23 wpm, respectively.

An average professional typist types usually in speeds of 50 to 80 wpm, while some positions can require 80 to 95 and some advanced typists work at speeds above 120 wpm.

The fastest typing speed on an alphanumeric keyboard, 216 words in one minute, was achieved by Stella Pajunas in 1946.

As of 2005, writer Barbara Blackburn was the fastest alphanumerical English language typist in the world, according to The Guinness Book of World Records. Using the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, she maintained 150 wpm for 50 minutes, and 170 wpm for shorter periods. Her top speed was 212 wpm.

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